Sabtu, 06 November 2010

Organizational communication

History of Organizational Communication

The field traces its lineage through business information, business communication, and early mass communication studies published in the 1930s through the 1950s. Until then, organizational communication as a discipline consisted of a few professors within speech departments who had a particular interest in speaking and writing in business settings. The current field is well established with its own theories and empirical concerns distinct from other communication subfields and other approaches to organizations.

Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. i.e., language is not the only source of communication, there are other means also. NVC can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic communication), by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact.

Jumat, 05 November 2010

Linguistics (Verbal Communication)

Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics encompasses a number of sub-fields. An important topical division is between the study of language structure (grammar) and the study of meaning (semantics and pragmatics). Grammar encompasses morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the rules that determine how words combine into phrases and sentences) and phonology (the study of sound systems and abstract sound units). Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones), non-speech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived.


Communication is a process where by information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, however the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, through media, i.e., pictures, graphics and sound, and writing.

Kamis, 04 November 2010

Muted group theory

Muted Group Theory developed out of the cultural anthropology field, but more recently has been developed in communication mostly as a feminist and cross-cultural theory. Muted group theory helps explain communication patterns and social representation of non-dominant cultural groups.

Large-group communication

Large group communication is a general description for organizational communication as a communication context describing large numbers of individuals who are members of a group. Large group contexts can include communities of interest, geography, or economy brought together by need or self-identification. A company is a large group communication context with specific media, language codes, and methods of interaction that distinguish it from other companies or other groups. Unlike small-group communication where members interact in primarily synchronous and personal ways, large groups use a host of synchronous and asynchronous methods and media.


Communication in small groups

Group communication

The first important research study of small group communication was performed by social psychologist Robert Bales and published in a series of books and articles in the early and mid 1950s . This research entailed the content analysis of discussions within groups making decisions about "human relations" problems (i.e., vignettes about relationship difficulties within families or organizations). Bales made a series of important discoveries. First, group discussion tends to shift back and forth relatively quickly between the discussion of the group task and discussion relevant to the relationship among the members.

Rabu, 03 November 2010

Theory of multiple intelligences

The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 to analyze and better describe the concept of intelligence.
Gardner argues that the concept of intelligence as traditionally defined in psychometrics (IQ tests) does not sufficiently describe the wide variety of cognitive abilities humans display. For example, the theory states that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child who has stronger skills in

Intrapersonal Communication

Intrapersonal communication is language use or thought internal to the communicator. Intrapersonal communication is when you are speaking to one's self. it is called Meditation. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop.

Interpersonal communication relationship dissolution


When the activity of one member of a couple causes a breakup it is referred to as relationship dissolution. This article examines two types of relationship dissolution, the nonmarital breakup and the marital breakups. The differences are how they are experienced, how they must be studied and how they might survive. Nonmarital breakups help us understand the nature of the issues involved and the patterns of grief experienced, they are meaningful to both persons, creating crisis in intimacy, personal and social development and future commitment expectations. Surviving a nonmarital breakup provides the opportunity to self

Theories of interpersonal communication

1.Uncertainty Reduction Theory (Charles Berger & Richard Calabrese 1975)
Uncertainty Reduction Theory comes from the sociopsycological perspective. It addresses the basic process of how we gain knowledge about other people. According to the theory people have difficulty with uncertainty, they want to be able to predict behavior and therefore they are motivated to seek more information about people(Berger & Calabrese, 1975).

Interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication is usually defined by communication scholars in numerous ways, usually describing participants who are dependent upon one another and have a shared history. Communication channels, the conceptualization of media that carry messages from sender to receiver, take two distinct forms: direct and indirect.